Grammar Instruction: Beyond Identification

Grammar Instruction: Beyond Identification

When was the last time you were asked to identify parts of speech or parts of a sentence in a real-world context? Or underline subjects, predicates and draw arrows from modifiers to the words they are modifying?  My guess is that having this set of very downloadparticular skills may not prove extremely useful outside of completing grammar worksheets or trivia.

So isn’t all this time we spend on grammar just time wasted? Like my friends on social media say, “I don’t know all that grammar stuff, and I write good.”

Should we teach the structure of our language or not?

I believe that we absolutely MUST teach these skills.  However, we must teach with the understanding that grammar instruction is a means to an end.  But what end? I to put it simply, writing and talking good well.  The understanding of function and effect of parts of speech, phrases, and clauses far outweigh the ability to label them.  This foundational understanding is also paramount for proper mechanics and usage. imagesFor example, if I know that adjectives modify nouns and adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs, I can easily recognize that “I write good” would be better expressed as “I am a good writer” or “I write well.”  A lifetime of simply identifying adjectives and adverbs wouldn’t have allowed me to come to that conclusion. I had to consider the function and effect of the words


There are countless examples of how understanding the effects and functions of language will help us correct usage errors. To name a few:

  • Knowing the difference between coordinating and subordinating conjunctions will help us refrain from unintentional fragments and run-ons.
  • Understanding that pronouns in prepositional phrases are always written in the objective case will help us solve the many  “who vs. whom” or “I vs me” debates.
  • Realizing that that predicate nouns follow linking verbs will help us realize that “It is I” or “This is he/she” is the correct response to the phone call inquiry “May I speak with (your name?),

These are just a few examples of how understanding the function of grammar elements impact the correctness of speech/writing. AND, more importantly, a thorough understanding the elements of grammar can enhance a writer’s style allowing them to bend and break rules for stylistic purposes (such as the often-chastised rule of never beginning sentences with a coordinating conjunction).

So where does that leave grammar instruction?  How do we teach the effect and function of grammar without the emphasis on labeling and identifying?


Adapted from a presentation by Ginger Howe, ELA Coordinator at Moore Public Schools, here are some steps to follow to make sure your grammar instruction will impact and improve writing.

Using Similarities and Differences to teach Grammar:

  1. Desired Effect: Students describe how elements are similar and different and what new information they have learned as a result of their comparisons.
  2. Introduce any grammar concept: (proper nouns, dialogue, participial phrases…) This usually involves defining words and providing examples and non-examples.
  3. Find real text in which that grammar context appears: This text could be from a previously shared reading, a cold read, or even a student writing sample.  The key is that it is real text where the sentences go together to form a paragraph (instead of traditional grammar exercises).
  4. Rewrite the paragraph either removing the grammar concept you are studying or using that concept incorrectly somehow: This could involve replacing proper nouns with pronouns, active voice with passive voice, removing quotation marks, or prepositional phrases,  rewriting verbal phrases as dangling modifiers, using incorrect verb tenses, misplacing commas. You get the picture.
  5. Invite students to evaluate the text: Prepare questions designed for them to notice what makes this writing lack effectiveness. Or just ask them what they notice.
  6. Reveal the original text and have them compare similarities and difference:  Ask specific questions related to the effect and function of grammar concept.  If necessary, use sentence stems as a scaffold: “This sentence provided more detail by using ________.”
  7. End with writing:


    • Ask them to summarize the difference between the effective and ineffective writing samples.
    • Write a parody of the original paragraph or an original draft using same grammar concept annotating their use of the concept.
    • Edit their own writing or a new sample to demonstrate their understanding of new the grammar concept.
    • Identify this grammar concept in independent reading or their own writing and summarize the function or effect of the techniques the author used.
    • Identify this grammar concept in independent reading and create an ineffective version similar to teacher’s example complete with follow up questions.

Inferencing: Teaching Vs. Assigning

Teaching Inferencing VS Assigning Inferencing


downloadInferencing seems to be a word frequently thrown around reading instruction.  We also hear it a lot when talking about increasing DOK in our questioning and assessments.  But what exactly is inferencing?  And how do we help students improve their ability to make inferences?


We sometimes refer to inferencing as an “educated guess” and may even ask students to make inferences as they read – but do we explicitly teach them HOW to make inferences?


In Kylene Beers’ When Kids Can’t Read, Beers discusses many characteristics of what she calls dependent readers, readers that rely on an outside source to tell them what to do when the text gets too tough. Their behaviors are very different from independent readers when they encounter difficult text.  A dependent reader may simply stop reading, ask the teacher to explain everything, or keep reading despite lack of any understanding.  


The difficult part, but often the most important in teaching anything is how to make the complex or abstract concepts more concrete.  Kyleen Beers attempts to do this by identifying 13

types of inferences that can teachers can explicitly teach and use to guide their questioning during think alouds or modeling.


  1. Recognize the antecedents for pronouns
  2. Figure out the meaning of unknown words from context clues
  3. Figure out the grammatical function of an unknown word
  4. Understand intonation of character’s words
  5. Identify character’s beliefs, personalities, and motivations
  6. Understand characters’ relationships to one another
  7. Provide details about the setting
  8. Provide explanations for events or ideas that are presented in the text
  9. Offer details for events or their own explanations of the events presented in the text
  10. Understand the authors view of the world
  11. Recognize the author’s biases
  12. Relate what is happening in the text to their own knowledge of the world
  13. Offer conclusions from facts presented in the text


While it is important to ask students to make inferences; it is also important – especially for our dependent readers – for us to teach them how to do it and help them make their thinking more visible.  


A few suggestions that Beers offers to help teach inferencing are:


  • Make a poster of the 13 types (or a modified version) and refer to it often during class discussions
  • Select short passages and think aloud inferences. Ask students what type of inferences you are making.
  • Plan lessons where you annotate texts with students with the goal of finding words that are connected with each other.  Read more about examples here.
  • Practice inferences with cartoons or images such as this.


Quick Tip: Google Keep for the Classroom

Google Keep in the ELA classroom:


Quick shout out to freshman teacher (and local author) Dusty Crabtree for sharing with me her idea of using the Google Keep app as a time-saving tool while giving students feedback on any written products.
What is Google Keep? 
A notetaking app that allows you to access any notes you take (text, images, voice) with any device to all of your other devices. Google Keep Short Video
What does this have to do with my classroom?
Google keep is integrated into google docs.  So when you are in Google Docs

Screen Shot 2017-10-09 at 9.54.37 AM you can now go to the “Tools” menu and click “Keep Notepad” and instantly any notes you have taken can be pasted directly into your document.

So prior to grading papers, you can create notes with the feedback you anticipate your students will need.  More than likely this feedback will be related closely to your rubric.  So as you are reading student work and come across a common error or a particularly effective sentence,  you can open your notepad and quickly paste your feedback directly into your document.
Once your feedback is pasted into the document you may choose to copy into a “comment” or change the color of the text, so that your students will be able to find your feedback easier.
I hope this quick and easy tip allows you to give a lot of great prescriptive feedback in a small amount of time!

Advice VS Coaching

As educators, we all want every student to have access to a great teacher.  Where education leaders vary is how to go about making that happen.  I discuss the flaws in traditional PD experiences here, so I won’t go down that path again.  I would like to focus more on the 1:1 interactions between teachers and instructional leaders.  How can we leverage those conversations into something that results into improvement?

I recently read an article, PD is Sinking... where the author, Gustafson, maintains

Teachers being told what to learn and why it matters should no longer be the predominant means of professional learning.

Many instructional leaders struggle to initiate change because they rely on the method that Gustafson mentions.  “Here is what you need to know and why you need to do it.” Sometimes we believe that if we find the right answer – then everyone will just jump on board.  So, we are constantly seeking the next best thing.  I contend that lack of implementation has less to do with the quality of the strategy/program and more do to with the plan to implement learning.

This is probably an oversimplification, but when your goal is to help someone improve or implement some initiative, you can act in two very different ways: you can offer advice or you can coach them to be better.  Advice is quick and easy on your part, while coaching requires much more time and effort. Both definitely can be useful, but I would argue that coaching will result in a larger impact.

Advice can be great.  Think about all the great advice you’ve gotten in your lifetime. We seek advice when we don’t have solutions on out own. So, advice can be  really effective when it is sought out.  Those who sought it did so because they already knew they had a problem they needed help with, and are, therefore, already motivated to do what it takes to address the problem; they just need to be pointed in the right direction. The problem with relying on simply giving advice as an “implementation plan” is that many educators are receiving advice they aren’t seeking – therefore not motivated to act on it.  Below I describe a few specific reasons why just simply offering advice will fail to result in large scale improvement.

The Problems with Advice:

  1. Advice is often unsolicited

If you have kids, you have probably received a plethora of unsolicited advice.  Around 10 years ago – I was overwhelmed with all of the advice thrown my way from parents, in-laws, friends and even random people at restaurants.  When receiving unsolicited advice, the quality of the advice does not matter one bit.  Most people, myself included, immediately write it off. It could be the best advice in the world – If I didn’t ask for it, I ignored it. Not only did I not follow that advice, but I got a little peeved at the person who offered it.  When one offers unsolicited advice, it is always accompanied with an underlying assumption that the person on the receiving is not doing something well enough.  While that may be true – this fact is often not overlooked by those who receive unsolicited advice.Image result for unsolicited advice

When PD is centered around someone else’s perspective of what teaching should be – it won’t be effective.  Teacher’s deserve ownership in what and how they learn. Whether we mean to or not, when we ask teachers to change their practice without including them in the conversation, we are implying that their current efforts aren’t good enough.  That is a hard pill to swallow for anyone, and the result will likely be resistance to whatever advice is offered – no matter the quality of the advice.

2. Advice places burden of execution solely on teacher

When teachers do attempt to implement advice, they often do so without clarity and a Related imagethorough understanding of what it is they are implementing.  Advice tends to be overly general lacking details on how to actually implement a strategy.  Consider the following common advice teachers often receive:

“You should work harder to build relationships with your kids”

“Maybe using cooperative learning will help”

“Try lecturing a little less”

“You really need to work on procedures”

This type of advice is ineffective for several reasons.  1: This advice is annoyingly vague. 2: Image result for image of shaq and ed palubinskasEven if the teacher  wanted to implement the above advice, he/she is now left to guess at how these “strategies” should be implemented.  If these are teachers who are struggling in any of these areas, why on earth would we allow them to try to improve on their own??? That would be like telling  Shaq who was notorious for being a horrible free throw shooter- “Ya know, you really should work on shooting free throws,” and believing that you have offered them something of use.  Even if your advice had a little substance, without setting goals, modeling technique, observing and offering feedback it won’t get results. I would imagine many coaches/players gave Shaq a few tips or offered advice about how he could shoot better, but it wasn’t until Shaq worked with shooting-coach legend, Ed Palubinskas, that his free throw percentages soared from 38% average to up to 70%.  He talks a little about that process here.

3. Advice lacks follow through

Advice is typically take it or leave it. More often than not people tend to leave it (see #1 for reasons).  I suspect people rely on vice more often than coaching because it is a ton easier to give advice than it is to coach someone. Anyone with experience and know how can notice things that probably should happen in a classroom and advise a teacher, but it is much more difficult to share expertise in a way that results in the teacher making actual improvements. I suspect that is why offering advice is more common than coaching.  Everyone is strapped for time; it is easier to offer advice and walk away – then it is to put together a plan for improvement.  I have heard it said – “What gets monitored; gets done.” Giving “drive-by” advice removes any accountability from the process – and sometimes some peer accountability may be what teachers need to push them to grow.

Reflecting and improving as a teacher is a difficult and time consuming endeavor.  It requires a certain amount of vulnerability that can be emotionally taxing. It’s not easy for anyone to admit that their practice can be improved. It’s kind of like joining a diet/exercise program to be more healthy; you know it’s something you should do but it’s really hard to do things differently. That’s why so many of these programs have Image result for biggest loser trainers pushingcomponents that build in accountability.   Some have point systems – where people can hold themselves accountable for the food they eat. Others involve actually meeting with personal trainers, that hold them accountable and push them to do things, they wouldn’t have done on their own. On social media, people post all the time about how many miles they have ran, or calories they’ve eaten.  These people are looking for that attention to help them reinforce behaviors that will help them hit their goal. I don’t think it is a stretch to think that teachers need that sort of follow through to help them meet their professional goals.

How is coaching different from advice?

Instructional  coaching addresses each area where advice falls short.

  1. Coaching only works well when it is a choice.

Most teachers would agree that it is difficult to “force” learning onto their kids. Adults aren’t much different.  Instructional coaches intentionally plan enrolling activities to inform teachers and administrators the benefits of coaching.  Some teachers may not be ready to work with a coach.  That is fine! Adults learn in different ways; for some reading professional literature and online blogs may do the trick. Administrators should expect that all teachers are committed to continuous improvement – anything less than that would be unprofessional.  There is nothing wrong with referring a teacher to coach as one of several options – but assigning them to work with a coach can be detrimental to the work coaches do and more importantly it probably won’t work and is therefore a waste of teacher’s and coaches time.

Other options could include:

-Independent or small group book study

– Attend a training

– Observe other teachers at site

-Observe teachers in other schools

– Webinars

– Social media: Twitter chats, blogs, other education groups (ie English Companion Ning)

– Work directly with a mentor teacher or administrator to create a plan

– Work with instructional coach in a deep coaching cycle

Image result for different ways to learn

2. Coaching provides teachers with the support they need to improve.

Where advice fails at providing any actual support to teachers, coaching walks teachers through a process designed to support them to identify goals, learn high impact strategies, and monitor their progress towards those goals.  Coaches learn and practice how to model and communicate strategies in a way that honors the voice and expertise of the teachers.  Coaches don’t aim to “fix” teachers that are broken or failing; they simply use data to show the current reality and help teachers learn strategies to improve that reality.

3. Coaching helps ensure follow through

When working with an instructional coach, there is always some tacit accountability built into that relationship.  This accountability goes both directions.  Coaches are accountable to teachers to collect data and suggest and explain effective strategies.  Teachers who decide to enroll select goals and are accountable to do something in order to meet those goals.  The ultimate decision of what strategies they will do to meet those goals lies in them.  Once a goal is set, that goal also becomes the coaches goal.  I think this is why coaching works so well, because both parties are mutually accountable to each other. The work that follows is not about blaming one party for results, but focused on solutions and improvements.

Current Reality: Knowing is Half the Battle

Recently, I’ve been thinking a lot about how to help educators grow professionally. After spending quite awhile thinking, I’ve come to the following conclusion:

A. Getting better at complex tasks doesn’t happen by accident.

B. Teaching is a complex task.

C. Therefore, in order to get better at teaching, one must learn intentionally.


Therefore IF A and B then C  right???

There is a myth that experience ALONE may make one a better educator.  I disagree.  Experience without reflection is well… just experience. If we are serious about improving as educators, we need to take specific steps to ensure that we are getting better. In a series of posts. I would like to outline the steps educators should take to learn intentionally to improve their practice.

The logical place to begin would be to discuss how to figure out where to begin.

Helping teachers determine their Current Reality

In order to grow, it is helpful to have a firm understanding of what our current reality is.  My favorite show as a kid was GI JOE.  Each episode a character would remark “Knowing is half the battle,” while explaining the moral of the episode.  If knowing is one half, the knowing-is-half-the-battleother half is doing (along with a bunch of red and blue lasers), but it’s impossible to know what to DO before you KNOW. Once you are aware of what is working well and what isn’t, then teacher’s can set up some action steps to guide their professional growth.

What do we mean by current reality?To identify our current reality involves understanding where we are in our instructional practice.  We all have hunches about what our strengths and weaknesses are, but few find the time and resources to go beyond hunches and feelings.  If a runner wanted to increase their mile time, it would be necessary to know what there time was in the first place. To improve a runner may make some adjustments to their stride, try a different show, or change their diet, but without knowledge of a starting pindexoint they would never be able to track which adjustments actually led to improvement.  There is a huge market these days on gadgets that help us track our current reality.  Athletes are able to track their number of steps, distance, time, heart rate, average speed, calories burned, and probably several other things I don’t even know about. We now live in a culture where collecting data is easy, it is deciding what we do based on that data that is a little more difficult. What kind of data would teacher’s need to begin their journey to improvement? To help make this more concrete here is a list of questions  I think teachers would benefit from knowing the answers to:

    How many of my students met the learning criteria for today?
    How many students were on task during ________ (learning activity)?
    How engaged are students at various points in the lesson?
    How often do students have opportunities to share ideas?
    Exactly how much time are students talking vs. teacher talking?
    What types and kinds of questions am I asking?
    How much time do I spend on each classroom activity?
    What type of behavior do I spend time attending to?
    How many disruptions occurred per 10minutes?
    How long are my transitions taking?

While we have certainly many innovative tech tools available, to my knowledge there is no special apple watch that tells us which kids are paying attention and which ones are simply mouth breathing, or an app that sends us a notification the moment a kid actually gets it.  There is nothing that generates a report that tells us which questions you asked were most effective, or the number of times you struggled to get the attention of the entire class.

So while we wait for the tech giants of the world to invent apps and tools to instantly give teachers indicators on their current reality, I have three suggestions to tide you over.

  1. Video your classroom

  2. Work with a mentor teacher or instructional coach

  3. Use various types of objective data (not just test scores)

In professional sports, video and various forms of data play huge roles in their decisions.  Watching film is a common practice beginning as early as high school sports.

If you’ve seen the movie Moneyball you know how powerful data analysis can be.  The Oakland A’s used various statistics like on-base percentage to build a roster of cheaperbut effective roster.  This focus on data enabled them to improve and compete with teams spending millions of dollars more than they were.


While teaching it is impossible to internalize the all of the complex things going on during a typical class. When teachers work with coaches using video and data, they take guessing out of the equation. The discussion is anchored around objective facts rather than subjective opinions. This allows teachers to set clear and measurable goals meaningful to teachers that are centered on students.

While overcoming the discomfort of watching yourself on video and finding time to have reflective conversations with coaches about data prove to be difficult hurdles, I believe that they are worth making the effort to jump.  We aren’t going to improve by simply showing up to work.  By finding our current reality, we will be able to KNOW what we are doing is really helping students and what needs to be tweaked – and knowing is half the battle.


In my next post, I would like to go into more detail about setting goals based on that current reality.


I am awesome at being humble!

Those of you who have been aware of the #oklaed issues floating around the twittersphere the last few years will have noticed that education has seen better days.  There are MANY issues educators are dealing with. Without belaboring all of the issues, let’s just say that many educators feel that they are not treated like true professionals.

For those in admin or coaching positions, it is important to be aware of state of the teaching profession and make an intentional effort to communicate with staff in ways that convey mutual respect and professionalism.  I have71202_9781506307459 been reading one of Jim Knight’s latest books – Better Conversations and stumbled across some insights that struck home with me related to this issue.

What’s the difference between advocacy and inquiry?

During a dialogue, participants must make conscious decisions when to advocate for their ideas and when to seek to understand the ideas of others. Advocating involves sharing your ideas or perspectives, while inquiry is seeking to understand the ideas and perspectives of others.The problem with many conversations that occur in schools – especially regarding effective teaching practices, is there is often a lack of balance of advocacy and inquiry.  When this occurs, what we THINK is a dialogue morphs into something else.

For example, I recently had a discussion with my eleven year old regarding where he did his homework. I advocated for the idea that he should it at the dining room table  rather than in front of the television.  He took a different stance. He informed me that he was more comfortable on the couch.  I  further advocated for my position by explaining to him how a well-lit, quiet spot, free from distractions would result in higher quality work.  I was on the verge of using research to support my argument when he interrupted:

“Dad, I always do my homework here, and I have straight A’s! I think it’s working fine.”

I hesitated thinking how I could reason with him.  That hesitation gave him the opening he needed to solidify his argument with:

“Looks like  I won this conversation –  BOOM!”

Well played son… Well played.

In this instance, dialogue turned into something else indeeconfused-faced.  There was no balance of advocacy and inquiry.  Both Parker (my son) and I, were intent on advocating our own perspectives and competing to “win” the conversation.  I am learning that using logic, and other forms of rhetoric to advocate for one’s perspective is useless when the other party has no intention of seeking to understand that perspective. Similarly, I have noticed when I fail to come to a shared understanding, I often make decisions that I later regret.

Become Awesome at Being Humble

To remedy the lack of effective dialogue in schools, we should all learn how to  be humble.  As Trump would undoubtedly say we should all be able to say

“There is no one that is more humble than me, In fact you wouldn’t believe how humble I can be; I am bigly humble.”

Status is very important to us in education.  Those of us in the classrooms take a lot of pride in our craft and enjoy being known as a “great educator.”  We like it when students refer to us as there favorite teacher. Many people don’t know this, but there are people who actually teach because of that feeling they get when our planning and hard work results in students learning new things. Sometimes we run into them at Wal-Mart years later and they tell us that they appreciate how we have helped them become successful. imagesYou see, for some, it’s more than the glitz, glam, and glory of lesson planning, faculty meetings, grading papers, and parent teacher conferences.

Being humble involves taking our status, and chucking it out the window.

Whether we are master teachers, instructional coaches, admin, central office, or local celebrity #oklaed bloggers, in order to have effective dialogue we need to have the ability to set our status aside and approach dialogue with the intention of balancing inquiry and advocacy.


  • Listen to understand.
  • Be willing to be wrong.
  • Embrace being wrong as an opportunity to learn.
  • Understand that everyone has something they can teach YOU.
  • Be genuine and sincere when you offer praise.
  • Learn to be comfortable with silences during conversation.
  • Stop trying to make everyone see issues the same way you do.
  • Understand that if you believe you already know everything, you have already hit your peak.
  • Understand somebody else probably already figured out the thing you are trying to figure out – find them and ask them questions.
  • Stop turning conversations into competitions: You can’t WIN a dialogue.


If you are reading this and thinking “Ya know, these are some good points.  I wish people would start doing these things.  It would be great if people would listen to me more when I share my ideas.  In fact if they did,  I think schools would be better – all that needs to happen is people needs to listen to me more…”

You have missed the point of this completely.  We can only control OUR half of the dialogue.  It is not helpful or productive to wish things about the other half of dialogues. Perhaps, if we model humility, empathy, and inquiry in our dealings with others it will be contagious.





Professional Development: A Love/Hate Relationship Part II

This is the second installment of a blog series about educators love/hate relationship regarding Professional development.  In case you missed the first piece: here , I will catch you up.

In the first installment, I described the two types of educators:

  1. People who love PD
  2. Everyone else.

I went on to describe some traditional methods of PD that are really only effective with the crazies in group one.  In this part, I would like to suggest an alternative form of PD to help our teachers in latter group.

While I consider myself one of the crazies in group one, I have endured my fair share of time-wasting PD ranging from PD on things I already knew how to do, things that didn’t apply to me as a secondary English teacher, and things that… Well let me just insert one more quick anecdote…

Having 4 or 5 years under my belt as a teacher in addition to completing graduate coursework had made me into a pretty good teacher.  During the summers, I spent time attending PD when  I could, reading some professional literature, and going over my curriculum ready to start some new and great things for my students.  Fast forward to the first day teachers are back in the building.  You know the day when teachers are excited to get into their rooms, arrange furniture, make a ton of copies of syllabi, interest surveys, and all the other first day of school regulars.  Despite the desperate need to work on all of these things, Admin seems to always have an equally desperate need to keep all staff members in the same room for PD.  You may be wondering “what PD could possibly meet the needs of all the different teachers in the building and make a lasting impact on our students ?”   

Team building activities that’s what. 

In this particular instance, our Admin went above and beyond and hired an outside consultant to do team building exercises and generally motivate us to change the world.  If you are going to do a thing – you may as well do it big… right? Well they definitely went all out with this guy.  His name was, and I am not joking, Mr. Happy.  Mr. Happy brought out all the stops.  He had all 80 of us in the gym, doing the congo, giving each other back rubs, doing the hokey pokey, and of course we had to do that thing where we partner up and study our partners than turn around and change pd8something about our appearance, then turn back around and try to find all of the things that were changed which of course led all the participants to have a earth-shattering paradigm shift about “noticing the little things” with our students. 

Armed with this new knowledge and renewed enthusiasm we then strolled out for our hour lunch and returned to our classrooms to “watch” our blood-born pathogen and sexual harassment videos do by the end of the day. 

I am sure many have experienced similar pd.  I think this is why the amount of teachers in group 2 is so high.  We are extremely short sided in what we offer in terms of professional learning. I may go as far to say some simply are happy with just filling the time with “stuff” to do – kind of like the teacher that assigns busy work to make sure they are going bell to bell.

I would like to advocate for something different. Treat professionals like professionals and offer them some voice/choice with regard to their own learning.

The way I would suggest going about this new and improved PD plan would be to use “instructional coaches.” Instructional coaches are pedagogy and communication experts – meaning they are very familiar with best practices and are able to communicate them to others.  They are the ones who experiment with new ideas in the classroom and reflect on data to determine what worked and what didn’t work.  You may already have these coaches in your building without knowing it. They may be principals, assistant principals, or teacher-leaders. While each of these people already have plenty on their plate, they somehow find some time to mentor other teachers. However, the most effective coaching programs involve hiring full time coaches who aren’t limited in time due to grading papers, disciplining students, reasoning with parents, or searching for the culprit who sprayed fart spray in the elevator.

So how is instructional coaching better than traditional forms of PD?


In short, instructional coaching is needs-based, job embedded, individualized, and it’s always a choice.  There is emphasis on that last bit about it being a choice, because I believe some think “coaches” are the people who go in and fix all the bad teachers.  That could not be further from the truth.  It is very dehumanizing to take away a teacher’s right to say “no.”  While all professionals SHOULD be committed to improving, being coached is only one way for that to happen.

What is Instructional Coaching, according to Jim Knight, in 3 simple steps:

Coaches help teachers to

1:  identify student-centered goals

2: learn specific strategies to meet those goals

3. reflect on progress and make adjustments in order to improve. 

Identify –> Learn –>Improve 

How would instructional coaching benefit each of the 2 groups?

Instructional Coaching for Those who LOVE PD.

If there is one thing that the people who are in this group really love (besides per diems) it is feedback.  Feedback is addictive.  It is one of the reasons people play video games. People like knowing they are getting better, or if they are struggling, they want to know what to do to fix it.  Most video games keep score, or provide increasingly difficult levels (think Angry Birds).  These components that provide consumers with instant feedback are the thing that makes video games addictive.  No one would play Angry Birds if it was the same level the whole time or there was no score to beat.

Instructional coaches provide teachers with this instant feedback that helps teachers understand their current reality.  This is different from evaluative feedback.  This isn’t you did good or bad – this is “Wow, 90% of your students were engaged! What do you think you did that excited them?”

For those who are always trying new things, instructional coaching provides them an audiences and means to reflect on the impact of all of the new things they try.  Coaches will ask tough questions for teachers to really consider if these strategies need to be changed, scrapped, continued, or presented at a conference because they are so awesome.

Instructional Coaching for the “Everyone Else”Group


For our highly skeptical friends, instructional coaching ensures that teachers aren’t getting trained on stuff they already know, stuff that doesn’t relate to them, or stuff that they just don’t care about. There is no “death by power point”, or “my way or the high way” directives.  The focus is not on test scores, but on goals the teacher comes up with.  The the teacher is in the driver’s seat of their own learning when working with a coach. The major appeal for our friends in group 2 is that instructional coaching is a pd model treats professionals like professionals by offering them voice/choice in their own learning.


To learn more about instructional coaching, I highly recommenced the work of Jim Knight.  Jim Knight has researched and written several books about coaching designed to address needs and hurdles associated with the complexities of adult learning. Read more here. Did I mention that Jim Knight and I are besties…?  Here is proof.